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As I'm installing SQL Server 2022, I've encountered several parameters for setting data directories and I'm seeking some clarification:

INSTALLSQLDATADIR is used to define the root data directory for the database engine. What does it mean by "the root data directory for the database engine"? Why is it recommended to set this directory separately when the SQL Server binaries are installed on the C: drive by default?

How does INSTALLSQLDATADIR interact with parameters specifically for user databases, tempdb data, and log directories?

I want to ensure I set up the directories correctly from the start to avoid any potential issues. Any advice or best practices would be greatly appreciated.

Thanks in advance.

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Per the "Installation parameters" in Install and configure SQL Server on Windows from the command prompt, /INSTALLSQLDATADIR affects the default values of /SQLBACKUPDIR, /SQLTEMPDBDIR, /SQLTEMPDBLOGDIR, /SQLUSERDBDIR and /SQLUSERDBLOGDIR.

It is a best practice to Place data and log files on separate drives.

To optimize tempdb performance, some best practices are to put the tempdb database on a fast I/O subsystem and to put the tempdb database on disks that differ from the disks that user databases use. Here is a reference: tempdb database.

It is recommended that a backup disk be a different disk than the database data and log disks. This is necessary to make sure that you can access the backups if the data or log disk fails. Here is a reference: Using disk backup devices.

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