We have a web product for young professional that gives them the possibility to create their page to show their professional identity. So a table users that has both information about the user (email, password, name) including their credentials and information about their page (premium or not, page address, theme)

Now we want to offer the possibility for recruiters to signup to our platform to browse through candidates. A recruiter can also be a user with a page but does not have to.

Now our two approaches:

A/ Create a table recruiters with name and credentials of the recruiter and a column user_id to connect with the ID of the table users if they have created a site.

  • Benefits : The product can be easily developed separately, by two different teams.
  • Inconvenient : Duplicates of the name and credentials if the recruiter is also a user. We would need to either update both credential when one is updated or to let them have two different email/password combination, one for their user account, one for their recruiter account.

Database structure:

ID name email password group_id premium theme page_address

ID name email password company_id user_id

B/ Add the recruiters to the users table with a different group_id and move all the information about the users page in another table (premium or not, page address, theme). We would also have a third table for the recruiter containing any information specific to them.

  • Benefits : One table with all the credentials.
  • Inconvenient : If we reach millions of users, any query among recruiters will have to take a tiny subset among a huge table. Also : lots of join to get the site information for every user.

Database structure:

ID name email password group_id

user_id premium theme page_address

user_id company_id

C/ Any other solution?

Thank you for your inputs!


  • I noticed this is pretty similar dba.stackexchange.com/questions/1971/… except that in our case an employer can also have personal page. We are more between LinkedIn where all the recruiters have a personal account and this example.
    – Tristan
    Feb 26, 2013 at 9:41

2 Answers 2


A user is a user, which is different than a person.

A user is a role played by a person. A recruiter is also a role played by a person.

create table party(
  id serial primary key,
  name text not null

create table role_type(
  id char(1) primary key,
  name text not null unique

insert into role_type values 
('u', 'user'),
('r', 'recruiter');

/* use Table Inheritance to add role-specific details. */
create table party_role(
  party_id integer not null references party(id),
  role_type char(1) not null references role_type(id),
  primary key (party_id, role_type)

/*  create a user: */

insert into party values
(1, 'Neil');
insert into party_role values
(1, 'u');

/* create someone that is both a recruiter and user: */
insert into party values
(2, 'Tristan');
insert into party_role values 
(2, 'u'),
(2, 'r');
  • Thank you for your answer, but how about if I want to get the information concerning a recruiter in a big database? I would need to do a JOIN on the party_role table to check if a user is actually a recruiter. If that table is very large, this seem to be quite expensive.
    – Tristan
    Feb 25, 2013 at 19:47
  • 1
    Yes, you would need to do a join, but no, joins are not very expensive in modern relational databases. It is also far less costly than having duplicated data all over the place. You can use Single Table Inheritance for the party_role table to minimize joins if you like. Feb 25, 2013 at 20:30
  • How about database sharding in this situation? Thanks!
    – Tristan
    Feb 26, 2013 at 14:05

I would go with your second suggestion simply because there is no duplicate data in that model. Check Database normalization.

Joins won't be expensive if you put index on user_id, which you anyway should, since it looks like primary key.

  • This seems definitely more elegant indeed but it would mean 1/ two different teams would have to work with the same database 2/ To get the recruiters data we would need to query the main user database. 3/ To query the user pages we would need to take off the non-recruiters.
    – Tristan
    Feb 26, 2013 at 10:52
  • 1) I don't see why would this be a problem? With first solution you still need someone to coordinate changes between these tables. 2) Are these tables in the same database? Which RDBMS are you using? But I still don't see the problem with this either. 3) You can have a flag in users table which tells you is that a "normal" user or a recruiter, if that's easier for you.
    – bojan
    Feb 26, 2013 at 12:42
  • We are using MySQL and the tables are in the same database for now but how about database sharding if we reach a large number of users? We would then have separate databases and that will become a problem. The recruiters table on the other hand won't need to be sharded because their number will stay in the 100'000s rows max.
    – Tristan
    Feb 26, 2013 at 14:04
  • I never worked with MySQL Cluster, but AFAIK, database sharding is horizontal partitioning (by rows), not vertical (by columns). Therefore, you would still need same database schema on each node. It makes no sense to design database differently to "support sharding".
    – bojan
    Feb 27, 2013 at 0:07

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