What is the meaning of DOP in the context of sql server?
DOP in SQL Server stands for
Degrees of Parallelism.
Per the MSDN article here, if SQL Server has multiple processors available, and the query meets certain thresholds, SQL Server will try and split up the query over multiple processors to increase its performance.
In earlier versions of SQL Server, I have seen parallelism actually make queries run slower; that is, the time to spend figuring out the parallelism takes longer than the actual query would take without it.
In queries, you can specify the maximum number of processors to use by using the
OPTION (MAXDOP X) query hint, where X is the maximum number of processors available. You can turn off parallelism by using
OPTION (MAXDOP 1).
There is also a known issue with parallelism and
SCOPE_IDENTITY() in SQL Server 2005/2008.
Degree Of Parallelism
When SQL Server runs on a computer with more than one microprocessor or CPU, it detects the best degree of parallelism, that is, the number of processors employed to run a single statement, for each parallel plan execution. You can use the max degree of parallelism option to limit the number of processors to use in parallel plan execution.
To enable the server to determine the maximum degree of parallelism, set this option to 0, the default value. Setting maximum degree of parallelism to 0 allows SQL Server to use all the available processors up to 64 processors. To suppress parallel plan generation, set max degree of parallelism to 1. Set the value to a number greater than 1 (up to a maximum of 64) to restrict the maximum number of processors used by a single query execution. If a value greater than the number of available processors is specified, the actual number of available processors is used. If the computer has only one processor, the max degree of parallelism value is ignored.