I'm designing a web application. There will be users who log into the site, but also anonymous, non-authenticated users, i.e. any member of the public who accesses the site. Users will be assigned to groups, and those groups will be assigned permissions. Some site content will be accessible only to authenticated users, while other content may be marked as publicly accessible. I'm considering how best to model facts such as "this item is publicly accessible". Options that occur to me so far:

  1. Create a special group that a special user "Anonymous" belongs to. Assign permissions to the "Anonymous" group, and pretend that unauthenticated users are all the Anonymous user.

  2. On each content entity, include an attribute such as is_publicly_accessible.

Any thoughts on which is the right way to go? The first option feels like a more consistent approach to permissions, but the notion of some users and groups being special/fake/dummy doesn't feel right.

1 Answer 1


I'd go for option 1. With this approach there are no "hacks" in the app for anonymous users. The standard security model continues to apply with the only difference being that if you don't know who the user is (ie, they haven't authenticated) that you pretend they are the anonymous user, which in effect they are.

Option 1 is also the approach used by most (all?) web servers and file servers: they use an "anonymous" or "nobody" user.

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