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I have a large (40GB) table I would like to partition. The rows are essentially write once read many. Currently I am using mysql 5.5 innodb with file_per_table. It's tough to optimize this table since rebuilding the entire file takes a very long time.

I am looking to partition the table such that there is only one partition being written to; I think this will mean optimizing the table will take much less time since each non-current file will be optimized only once and need not be touched again.

I am new to table partitioning in mysql and I'm not sure what the right way to go about this is. I know there is no 'file size' partitioning scheme so the next best thing is to SWAG at the range of rows that will result in file sizes I would prefer (3-4GB seems good - so about 3-4 files/year at our current rate). My thinking is to range partition on id but that can't work do to technical requirements on file partitioning ("All columns used in the partitioning expression for a partitioned table must be part of every unique key that the table may have."). So what's the right way to go about this? Following is the table definition trimmed down to the important parts:

+-----------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field           | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-----------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id              | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| TransactionId   | int(11)      | NO   | MUL | NULL    |                |
| Parent          | int(11)      | NO   | MUL | 0       |                |
| Headers         | longtext     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Creator         | int(11)      | NO   |     | 0       |                |
| Created         | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+-----------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

Time flies... We've moved to using the mysql.com repo and upgraded to 5.6. Time for a trial. Using a smaller table I've attempted to use the Online DDL optimize. I'm not getting the expected result:

mysql> optimize table Users;
+-----------+----------+----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Table     | Op       | Msg_type | Msg_text                                                          |
+-----------+----------+----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| rt4.Users | optimize | note     | Table does not support optimize, doing recreate + analyze instead |
| rt4.Users | optimize | status   | OK                                                                |
+-----------+----------+----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.43 sec)

mysql> desc Users;
+-----------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field                 | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-----------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id                    | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| Name                  | varchar(200) | NO   | UNI | NULL    |                |
| Password              | varchar(256) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| AuthToken             | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Comments              | text         | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Signature             | text         | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| EmailAddress          | varchar(120) | YES  | MUL | NULL    |                |
| FreeformContactInfo   | text         | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Organization          | varchar(200) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| RealName              | varchar(120) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| NickName              | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Lang                  | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| EmailEncoding         | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| WebEncoding           | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| ExternalContactInfoId | varchar(100) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| ContactInfoSystem     | varchar(30)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| ExternalAuthId        | varchar(100) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| AuthSystem            | varchar(30)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Gecos                 | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| HomePhone             | varchar(30)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| WorkPhone             | varchar(30)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| MobilePhone           | varchar(30)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| PagerPhone            | varchar(30)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Address1              | varchar(200) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Address2              | varchar(200) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| City                  | varchar(100) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| State                 | varchar(100) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Zip                   | varchar(16)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Country               | varchar(50)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Timezone              | varchar(50)  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| PGPKey                | text         | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| Creator               | int(11)      | NO   |     | 0       |                |
| Created               | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| LastUpdatedBy         | int(11)      | NO   |     | 0       |                |
| LastUpdated           | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| SMIMECertificate      | text         | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+-----------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
36 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select @@VERSION;
+------------+
| @@VERSION  |
+------------+
| 5.6.19-log |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

What am I missing?

5

First, you should consider solving the problem in another way.

  • Upgrade to MySQL 5.6, where OPTIMIZE TABLE works without blocking (for an InnoDB table), as it is supported by InnoDB Online DDL.

  • If you can't upgrade, try using Percona Toolkit's pt-online-schema-change, which can perform the table rebuild without blocking.

    $ pt-online-schema-change h=localhost,D=mydatabase,t=mytable --execute
        --alter="ENGINE=InnoDB"
    

If you're stuck on using partition, yes, you must make id the partition key in the table you show. You can convert the table to partitioning with ALTER TABLE. If you need the conversion operation to be non-blocking, use pt-online-schema-change.

There's no way to partition to fixed-size partitions. You have to partition by values. But is it really that important to hit a specific size per partition?


Re your comment about partition size:

When using RANGE partitioning, what I do is set up a schedule to ALTER TABLE and split the last partition from time to time. If you have a regular rate of growth, this is easy, but if you have irregular patterns of growth, you might instead set up a periodic check that examines the number of rows per partition (use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS), and email you if it's getting full.

For example, let's set up a table partitioned by range on id.

CREATE TABLE `mytable` (
  `id` bigint(20) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `transactionid` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `parent` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `headers` longtext,
  `creator` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `created` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `id` (`id`),
  KEY `transactionid` (`transactionid`,`parent`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
/*!50100 PARTITION BY RANGE (id)
(PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (0) ENGINE = InnoDB,
 PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1000) ENGINE = InnoDB,
 PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) ENGINE = InnoDB,
 PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (3000) ENGINE = InnoDB,
 PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE ENGINE = InnoDB) */

As the MAX(id) approaches 3000, it's getting close to filling up p3 and spilling over into p4. So it's time to reorganize. It's good to do this before any data spills over into p4, because the reorg will affect only the last, empty partition and will therefore be very quick.

ALTER TABLE mytable REORGANIZE PARTITION p4 INTO 
(PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (4000), PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE);

Even if you miss a day and you get some data into the old p4, chances are it's not much data. But if you neglect this for a month or two, and p4 fills up with a lot of data, then the REORGANIZE will take longer.

  • Thanks Bill. I run a conservative system based on CentOS stable with very few other repos (we do use Percona for your awesome backup toolset). Currently I get mysql from REMI - once he goes 5.6 so will I. – Ram May 21 '14 at 16:23
  • BTW I'm not looking for a specific size, I was looking to have it create new partition file based on the current one growing to some size - it is inconvenient to deal with huge files and if it's not significant otherwise then why not. – Ram May 21 '14 at 16:44
  • 1
    Are you aware that mysql.com now has its own yum repo? – Bill Karwin May 21 '14 at 17:14
  • Thanks for the bit about repartitioning - I suppose I can get what I want by monitoring the current partition file size and triggering an email or a job to add repartition based on the current max id. – Ram May 25 '14 at 21:39
  • Yes, I'd monitor INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS to see how many rows are in the latter partitions. – Bill Karwin May 25 '14 at 23:36

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