What is the "lifespan" for a login with the option
Enforce Password Expiration Enabled?
Where can I find configuration/option to change the time?
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Per the following article, This information can be found in:
Start -> All Programs -> Local Security Policy
Then navigate to Account Policies -> Password policy
You should see something similar to this:
This isn't an answer to the actual question asked, but commentary too long for a comment.
FWIW I don't create SQL Auth logins that obey Windows password policies. I can avoid that simply with:
CREATE LOGIN foo WITH PASSWORD = N'bar', CHECK_POLICY = OFF;
If I want logins to use Windows-based password policies, I'll make users log in with Windows authentication. Then I get the benefit of their password complexity and expiration for free, without having to create additional accounts that also must be maintained.
For applications, I fail to see the benefit of enforcing a lifetime for passwords. If you have a personnel change, then change the password manually (unless you can predict when you will have personnel changes). If you change this based on some arbitrary window, you're just creating extra maintenance for little to no gain, IMHO. If people have access to the connection string, they have access to it before you change the password, and after, too.