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I have 2 Servers with static public IP Addresses located one in UK and another in US.

Can I implement SQL Replication on these 2 servers located in 2 different locations accessible via public IP addresses and the 2 systems not fall under any common domain or VPN?

I have tried to implement it on my servers. Here I faced the issue that to add subscriber it's asking machine name. It's not accepting IP address.

It's giving me an error saying replication requires actual server name to make connection to the server.

Do we need to put these 2 servers in Active Directory or any other VPN?

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Probably an entry in your hosts file (in case of a default instance) or a SQL Client alias will solve the issue.

However, be aware that if you don't configure any security measure, all your TDS traffic will be clear and sniffable. A VPN is your best option in my opinion.

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Remember that SQL Replication does not accept IP as an instance name. You should make an Alias. For example in SQL server 2012 run "SQL Server Configuration" then in "SQL Native Client 11.0 (32 bit)" you can add new alias In "Alias name" field enter your SQL instance name and for
"Port Number" enter your port number (the default instance port for running over TCP/IP is 1344) .For "Server" enter The IP address of your server. enter image description here

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VPN is a best option. Also you can use Web Synchronization, it will replace clear TDS traffic with HTTPS using your own certificates (you can get it from CA, or create self-signed certs). Without VPN, it is better practice to allow only HTTPS traffic between public available servers, than to open sql server ports. WebSync has it's disadvantages and limitations, though.

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