What does the transaction log file store? Is it the blocks of transactions to be executed, is it the snapshot of records before beginning the execution of a transaction or is it just the statements found in a transaction block?
The transaction log stores every transaction and the changes made by those transactions to the database. This answer gets very complicated when going into detail but generally it stores the following.
- Modification Operations
- Log sequence numbers (LSN)
- Row data. Before/After/Partial/Meta-data, depending on the operation.
- Reserved space for rollbacks
It does not store queries or t-sql statements. Please refer to this overview by Microsoft.
The specific format is not fully documented and is subject to change betwen versions.