I think what you're looking for is "different objects, same interface". This facilitates code (in this case, SQL) reuse. This is known as the adapter pattern - see here.
I think that this quote encapsulates the thrust of your question
In software engineering, the adapter pattern is a software design
pattern that allows the interface of an existing class to be used from
another interface.1 It is often used to make existing classes work
with others without modifying their source code.
[EDIT in response to OP's comment]
Interesting question from a theoretical computer point of view. However, from my relatively rudimentary perspective, design patterns are more suited to procedural, OO and functional programming paradigms rather than to database work, SQL operates on a declarative paradigm. The SQL language IMHO, does not lend itself to the construction/implementation of programming design patterns.
There is one interesting approach - identifying RDBMS patterns (not necessarily design patterns in the programming sense) by what they are not.
Bill Karwin (a Percona employee and respected contributor to this group) has written a book called SQL Antipatterns. The book is here, but if you want to sample before purchase, there's an (impressive) 250 slide presentation here, also by Karwin.
So, to clearly answer your question, there is not a 1-1 correspondence between programming design patterns and RDBMS SQL patterns, and I don't know of any database-field specific terms in this area.