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Questions tagged [relational-theory]

On this site this tag applies to questions about Relational Model theory. The Relational Model for database management is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic. In the Relational Model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the Relational Model is a relational database.

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Is a relation with two attributes always in Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)?

I went through some tutorials on BCNF and got that a relation with two attributes is always in BCNF. My question What if a relation with two attributes has no prime or non-prime attributes? That is,...
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Is atomicity of domains always required?

Suppose there exists a social media site that allows users to tag posts, and each post can have any number of arbitrary tags. Isn't it easier to retain all the tag values in one single column along ...
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Is a table without a primary key normalized?

In a lecture, my lecturer showed us a table without a primary key. Upon questioning, he said that in 3NF when you remove transitive dependencies it's ok to then have a table without a primary key. ...
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2answers
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Is saving disk space still considered an advantage of normalization?

I have read a while back that one of the advantages of normalization is to save disk space (since normalization minimizes redundancy), but is saving disk space still considered an advantage of ...
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2answers
118 views

Does the concept of candidate key exist only in theory?

I know the concept of candidate key in RDBMS theory, but do candidate keys really exist in actual SQL engines? I mean is there any way to designate a particular column or set of columns as a candidate ...
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How To Query Databases in Subject-Predicate Format?

I have csv data in this format: id fieldname fieldvalue -- --------- ---------- 1 fieldA A1 1 fieldB B1 2 fieldA A2 2 fieldA B2 If I upload this to MySQL, how can I ...
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1answer
135 views

What is the meaning of “minimal key”?

In the definition, it says minimal key is a minimal set of attributes needed to identify the table. Does the "minimal" part mean "minimal number of attributes" or "cannot be eliminated"? For example: ...
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How to write group by and having in a relational algebra interpreter?

I am practising writing relational algebra (RA) expressions in RA interpreter from Duke, but I can't figure out how to represent group by or having (from SQL). I have this expression, but I need to ...
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Can the Chase test algorithm only modify attributes on the right side of a functional dependency?

I'm attempting to apply the Chase Algorithm to determine if a decomposition is a lossless join decomposition. Functional Dependencies = {A → C, B → D, C → D, DE → C, CE → A} Here is my initial ...
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1answer
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BCNF decomposition does not prevent insert anomaly?

I am in the process of designing a schema for a simple polling app and have tried to normalize it with the decomposition algorithm from this lecture. Requirements A poll has a unique id (poll_id), a ...
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Equi Join On Union- and Intersection-Compatible Relations

Suppose that I have two union- and intersection-compatible relations; i.e., R1(A,B) and R2(C,D) as: Now , I want to find the join of both relations with equality conditions A=C and B=D. I have ...
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Finding Exclusive Pairings in Relational Algebra

classId | studentId 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 How do you find the pairs of students (s1, s2) that ONLY have classes with ...
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Inserting data into a 3NF database [closed]

I have 6 tables with ~2-15 attributes each, each one of these 6 tables has an ID which is constrained from another table. This 7th table has its own ID and the 6 other table ID's, as well as a date ...
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Third Normal Form (3NF) Decomposition Scenario

I am trying to understand what are the steps to check if a decomposition of table is in 3NF. There is a specific exercise I'm trying to solve with no success. Given that R={A1,A2,A3,A4} and F={A1→...
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1answer
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For BCNF decomposition, is it okay to have a relation with none of the original functional dependencies?

Given the relation R[c, f, g, h, e, j, a, b, d, i] with the below functional dependencies I have come up with the below solution. However, I am unsure about it, considering R8 has none of the listed ...
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1answer
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Confusion with Tuple Relation Calculus Operations

I came upon a question like, Given the following relational schemas Student (studId, name, age, sex, deptNo, advisor) Department (deptId, DName, hod, phoneNo) Which of the following will be the ...
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1answer
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Are these relations in BCNF?

I have a homework question that I am trying to understand but having a tough time with this question. Any explanation or even pointers would be very appreciated (no exact answer expected - I am trying ...
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1answer
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Is sql_variant compatible with First Normal Form (1NF)?

1NF rule says that we should not keep data of different types in one single column. Does it mean that sql_variant is not compatible with first normal form hence should not be used?
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1answer
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Questions Concerning the Chase Test

For the question above, my work for each of the questions is below the concerns. Here are my main concerns: Does the order in which you use the relations matter? Can you end up with less tuples with ...
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1answer
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Question concerning minimal/cannonical cover

For the question above, I am confused with how to approach simplifying the left hand side of BDCE->A. Do I get rid of E, as D depends on it, or do I get rid of CD as well, as CD->A? Here's what I ...
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What normalization rules does this table break

Our previous DBA got fed up with the development teams frequent requests to change the database schema to add and delete columns. He then advised to the developers that he would create simple tables ...
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1answer
1k views

How to represent NULL in relational algebra?

In the 3rd part of the question below: Study the tables given below and write relational algebra expressions for the queries that follow. STUDENT(+ROLLNO, NAME, AGE, GENDER, ADDRESS, ADVISOR) ...
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1answer
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Is it Important to Understand Each Normal Form?

I have been studying database design and programming for quite some time now, but I still can't get a grasp of understanding each individual normal form (that is, 1NF, 2NF and 3NF). Seeing as anytime ...
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1answer
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Relations and Sets

From my understanding, One = {1,2,3,4,5...20}, and then if Two = {1}, then One won't map into Two. On that token, how come the answer is d instead of a?
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1answer
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Assessing the normal form for a relation with a multi-valued attribute

Assume that you have designed the following schema of relations: COURSES (CID, CNAME) STUDENTS(SID, SNAME, FAV_CIDS) However, you can not have a relation with set valued attributes (Did not really ...
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Counting in Tuple Relational Calculus

Given the following schema: Staff (sid, sname) Project (pid, pdesc, pfrom, pto) Asset (aid, acat, adesc) Workfor (sid, pid, wfrom, wto) Assignment (aid, sid, pid, afrom, ato) Note: The bold ...
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1answer
150 views

Equivalent of SQL’s “INNER JOIN USING” in relational algebra

I'm following a course in databases (Standford introduction to databases on YT) and, at some point, it's mentioned that t1 INNER JOIN t2 USING attr1, attr2 is equivalent to the NATURAL JOIN symbolized ...
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2answers
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Is there a name for this pattern, representing one-to-many relationships by adding columns with an index to a single table?

So a domain expert wants the following relation: CarOwners(owner_id, name, address, car_1_registration, car_2_registration, car_3_registration, car_4_registration) The reason given that most people ...
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1answer
44 views

If A -> B is augmented with C, is AC -> B legal?

Given the augmentation axiom and the decomposition axioms of functional dependencies and a relation of R(A,B,C) with an FD of: A -> B I can augment A -> B with C to get AC -> BC. Can I then ...
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1answer
114 views

Assessing statement about third normal form

Consider the following statements: A relation R, is in 3NF if every non-prime attribute of R, is fully functionally dependent on some key of R. State True or False. The answer given ...
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1answer
98 views

In which normal form is the relation R?

Hello Community, To prepare for my exam I have completed many exercises. Most of them were solvable without any problems. But the following task I could not solve until now. It is: You are given ...
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2answers
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How does normalization fix the three types of update anomalies?

I have been reading 'Database Systems: A practical approach to design, implementation and management' by Connolly and Begg in order to understand database normalization (chapter 14). I now better ...
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Difference between functional dependency and join dependency

By definition, a functional dependency is defined as Let X and Y be subsets of attributes of a relation R. A functional dependency X → Y holds over R if and only if for any instance r of R, ...
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Difference Between Implication and Conjunction in Domain Relational Calculus

I was reading my notes, and I came across this: Another example would be to find the names of the lecturers teaching all modules. We might reach for the following incorrect expression: {<N&...
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1answer
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Do my relational algebra operations produce the desired results?

I have these tables: Sailors sid sname rating age --- ------ ------ --- 22 dustin 7 45 31 john 8 55 58 ben 10 35 Boats ...
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1answer
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How to prove “A->B,C then A->B and A->C” from Armstrong Axioms

I know that this is true but I don't understand how to prove it. The Problem: Prove or disprove that if A->B,C, then A->B and A->C This answer is similar but it does not prove the relation using ...
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1answer
137 views

BCNF decomposition excercise

I have a relation R(A,B,C,G,H,I) with the functional dependencies (FDs for brevity) F = {A→B; A→C; C,G→H; C,G→I; B→H}. I want to decompose it into BCNF. So, we have AG as candidate key. I consider ...
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3NF Decomposition Check

I've solved, or I think I have, two book problems an 3NF, but I'm still a bit unsure about my understanding of it all and want to be sure I did it correctly. For the first one I have R(ABCD) and ...
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Quantifiers in Tuple Relational Calculus (Existencial and Universal)

Suppose this state for the relation schema Company I'm stuck trying to understand how, why and when I should use Quantifiers (Existencial and Universal) Examples: Here I understand how the ...
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How are joins Commutative and Associative?

I have read all over the place that joins are associative and commutative. So A join (B join C) should be the same as (A join C) join B. But I have a really hard time understanding how this can be ...
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2answers
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Is combining independent tables called normalisation?

So, at workplace, we currently store our audit logs in different tables, depending on what it is e.g. login/access info, configuration changes, etc. These are all independent data with no foreign ...
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3answers
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How to handle variations of the same data point?

I have a database with three tables: books, authors and books_authors books_authors is a “junction” table (i.e., it represents a conceptual level many-to-many relationship), so if it has a row ...
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Understanding multivalued dependencies

This is my first time studying multivalued dependencies and there is a question that was posted by my lecturer as a class exercise. I have an answer, but I'm not 100% sure it was right. Please let me ...
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1answer
958 views

Converting a relation into BCNF

I understand that to convert to BCNF, we need to take into account all violations and decompose as necessary with each FD. For example, if we had R(A,B,C,D) with FD's AB->C, B->D, C->A. We can ...
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How do you perform the chase test?

Trying to follow the chase algorithm as I understand it, If two rows agree in the left side of a functional dependency (FD for brevity), make their right sides agree too. Always replace a ...
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1answer
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Converting SQL to Relational Algebra / Calculus

I have designed a schema and generated a few SQL queries. I'm using PostgreSQL. For example: CREATE TABLE train ( train_code SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, name TEXT NOT NULL ); CREATE TABLE journey ( ...
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Find the highest graded student in each state, using Relational Algebra

Suppose I have a table of students, containing their ID, grade and state: ------------------------- | id | grade | state | ------------------------ | 1 | 83 | CA | | 2 | 94 | TX ...
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Normalizing with “Relational Database Tools” [closed]

I am trying to use the Relational Database Tools to check if my schema is in Boyce-Codd Normal Form and to understand the relevant functional dependencies. However, I am having trouble "converting" ...
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Do Selection attributes have to appear in Projection list in Relational Algebra

In extended relational algebra (aggregation being allowed) do you have to project all attributes that you use in a statement? So for example in the query below the attributes A.FO_ID and A.Arrival are ...
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6answers
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Why the term “relation(al)”?

In english, we might talk about the relation between, say, Bob and Tim. Perhaps they're cousins. The term "relation" in this context makes sense to me. In the context of relational databases, I ...