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When used in the context of databases, memory refers to RAM directly addressable by the CPU as opposed to going through the I/O subsystem.

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CPU > 80% -- 80% of one core Memory > 90% -- good Any Swap -- that relates to what the previous answer discussed Disk IO > 90% Disk Full > 90% -- 90% minus the size of the largest table -- this … allows room for ALTER and other maintenance slow log growing too fast etc For basic memory allocation, see my blog. Summary "If using just InnoDB, set innodb_buffer_pool_size to 70% of available RAM …
answered Jun 7 '15 by Rick James
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(I don't see where "47GB" comes from. The "total" includes the "base". Anyway...) The "MEMORY PER CONNECTION" is seriously pessimistic. And yet it is actually an underestimate! Here's the … innodb_buffer_pool_size to 70% of available RAM and not worry about the pessimistic formula. (How much RAM do you have?) I have reviewed formulas similar to yours on literally hundreds of production machines. All had the scare of "too much memory"; none actually exhibited "too much memory". …
answered Oct 24 '15 by Rick James
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high water mark since last restart. Edit Upgrade to a 64-bit MySQL Configure key_buffer_size and innodb_buffer_pool_size in my.cnf to the amount of RAM you have. Guidelines: http://mysql.rjweb.org/doc.php/memory See how things are going; come back to us for more help (and/or abuse) if needed. …
answered Mar 23 '15 by Rick James
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Grrr. Neither of the answers so far quite says the right things, so I feel obligated to give yet another Answer. @jkavalik gives a nice description of why the problem occurred. (But not what to do …
answered May 1 '16 by Rick James
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setting that puts a limit on the size of each in-memory temp table. The parsing of the statement takes a little bit of RAM. The binlog is buffered through RAM. "Group commit" is buffered in RAM. Galera …
answered Jul 11 '15 by Rick James
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leading to quite a few GB of transient MEMORY tables. Look through the slowlog to find which queries need tmp tables and see if they can be rewritten. Decrease long_query_time to 2 (now 10), turn on … creating disk "temp" tables as part of complex SELECTs -- increase tmp_table_size and max_heap_table_size. Check the rules for temp tables being able to use MEMORY instead of MyISAM. It may be possible to …
answered Nov 27 '15 by Rick James
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the server. Look at the actual log file, not mysqltuner's summary. It may indicate that you are running out of memory or something else. (The numbers you have presented should not lead to out of … memory.) Is the server dedicated to MySQL, or are other memory-hogs running? How much swap space do you have? Was it swapping when it "crashed". Swapping is terrible for MySQL performance, but it …
answered Feb 19 '18 by Rick James
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INDEX(ctime) is the only one that might be useful. Get rid of all the other secondary indexes unless you have other queries that would specifically benefit. Since it says 'statistics', I suspect it …
answered Mar 18 '17 by Rick James
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memory, possibly blowing out some cache (such as table_open_cache) Cure: Same as for both cases 1 and 2. Bottom line: When there are hundreds of these databases, tell them to clean up their act! (Until then, don't worry.) …
answered Jul 2 '16 by Rick James
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Let's review... 16GB of RAM. max_heap_table_size = 8G -- that says you are letting each process create a MEMORY table that is half the size of RAM! Not safe. Likely to lead to swapping. Query …
answered Sep 6 '12 by Rick James
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There is no good formula for the 'max' memory MySQL will use. Some settings are not only per-connection, but per-subquery-per-connection. free -m implies that there is a lot of RAM in use. But the … GLOBAL STATUS; and SHOW VARIABLES;. We can get further details from them. Some recent changes ----- 2019-02-11 MariaDB 10.2.22 & 2019-01-29 MariaDB 10.4.2 -- -- ----- Fix a memory leak in ALTER …
answered Mar 4 by Rick James
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for a day, please provide SHOW GLOBAL STATUS and SHOW VARIABLES; there may be other things to tune to cut back on excess memory usage. http://mysql.rjweb.org/doc.php/mysql_analysis#tuning Meanwhile …
answered Aug 22 '18 by Rick James
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causing the crash. Memory will increase until the buffer_pool is full size. Other 'caches' will also grow until full size. At that point, various smaller allocations will come and go. You should … never run out of memory. If you do, then some setting(s) is too large. I mentioned only one particular setting because that is the most useful for a dedicated mysql server. Leaving the rest alone is best practice until some particular need shows that something else needs tuning. This is rare. …
answered May 19 '17 by Rick James
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The system has 48GB of RAM. innodb_buffer_pool_size = 48000M Why is the system swappping so heavily? NO, NO, NO! 48G will lead to swapping and possibly crashing. Use 36G. You have …
answered Dec 20 '18 by Rick James
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tables, this means that innodb_buffer_pool_size may as well be 0 -- you aren't using it. So, I will guess one of this is the case: 32-bit OS 32-bit build of MySQL The OS is limiting how much memory each process can have. What OS? …
answered Jul 10 '15 by Rick James

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