As you noted, the docs refer to "log stream transport" when performing automatic seeding. Similar to the way that you can stream movies to your device without downloading a specific file, automatic seeding streams data to the secondary without storing an actual backup file.
While the technical implementation details aren't exactly this, it's ...
In your question, you included the following check to validate that you've set the RegisterAllProvidersIP to false:
PS C:\> get-clusterresource "Cluster Name" | Get-ClusterParameter RegisterAllProvidersIP
Object Name Value Type
------ ---- ----- ----
Cluster Name RegisterAllProvidersIP 0 ...
Both the log send queue and redo queue can be found in sys.sys.dm_hadr_database_replica_states (docs), and also available using the SQLServer:Database Replica Perfmon counters (docs).
With Perfmon counters, you'll need to collect counters individually on each replica. Each replica knows about the Send/Redo(recovery) queue affecting that replica ...
"Clustering" is definitely used here to refer to SQL Server's Failover Cluster Instances (FCIs). However, the terms are not interchangeable.
Both FCIs and Availability Groups (AGs) are built on top of Windows Server Failover Clusters (WSFCs). I've seen FCIs, AGs, and WDFCs referred to as "Clusters" or "Clustering." The ...
how can you configure the timeout for Synchronous Commit mode?
You can do it using SSMS, TSQL and powershell. Microsoft has documented this. Please see Modify the session-timeout period for an availability group replica. For example TSQL would look like
ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP AccountsAG
MODIFY REPLICA ON 'INSTANCE09' WITH (SESSION_TIMEOUT = 15);
This may not have been the case when the question was asked but the docs now show a table that clearly answers this question.
So you can have a different schema in binlog replicas but not Aurora replicas.
As noted in a comment in the other answer this approach can have drawbacks if you intend to modify parts of the schema that are replicated from the master,...
You can stop automatic seeding by setting seeding mode for that secondary replica to "manual." This will stop seeding for all databases.
See this docs article for the details: Use automatic seeding to initialize an Always On availability group - Stop automatic seeding
To stop automatic seeding for an availability group, run the following script ...
I would not rely on Object Explorer (or the AG dashboard) in SSMS to determine the status. Use the DMVs directly (or create your own dashboards against them). Something like this:
AGName = COALESCE(ag.name, 'N/A'),
FROM sys.databases AS d
LEFT OUTER JOIN sys....