You need to extract the value as text which is done using the ->> operator (-> returns a json value).
FROM job_request_table p
cross join json_array_elements(p.data_meta) as d(element)
where d.element ->> 'data_type' = 'Insurance';
However, given your sample data, this would result in the error "cannot extract elements from ...
This won't work. In particular, you cannot create a single index that will support conditions like
WHERE (user_properties ->> 'some random property')::date >= '2000-01-01'::date
for arbitrary attributes.
You will have to identify the properties you want to use in comparisons and create specialized indexes on these properties. In the above sample, ...