It seems to be the default behaviour of SQL Workbench, have a look at this article:
How do I change the resolution or scale of decimal data type on SQL Workbench.
Quoted from the article:
Normally, SQL Workbench doesn't display the decimal data with the full
scale. By default the scale is 2. We can change the scale by the
Aren't enums already ordered?
This commit, from 2014, implies that BRIN indexes should work for ENUM types.
That's actually not what that commit says. From the commit-message on the link you provided
This type of operator class we call "Minmax", and we
supply a bunch of them for most data types with B-tree opclasses.
Since the BRIN code is ...
From this post on /r/PostgreSQL to an answer by Laurenz Albe it seems that Heap Only Tuples (HOT) updates may be responsible. From the description of HOT updates in src/backend/access/heap/README.HOT
Effectively, space reclamation happens during tuple retrieval when the
page is nearly full (<10% free) and a buffer cleanup lock can be
You can unnest json array:
Postgres WITH ORDINALITY:
When a function in the FROM clause is suffixed by WITH ORDINALITY, a bigint column is appended to the output which starts from 1 and increments by 1 for each row of the function's output. This is most useful in the case of set returning functions such as unnest().
Have a look at this answer of Erwin ...
The optimal DB design always depends on the complete picture.
Generally, there is hardly anything faster than a plain btree index for your simple query. Introducing json or jsonb or even a plain array type in combination with a GIN index will most likely make it slower.
With your original table this multicolumn index with the right sort order should be a ...
you can return multiple result sets from a procedure - similar to the way it has always been possible with a function:
create procedure getdata(result_one inout refcursor, result_two inout refcursor)
open result_one for
from (values (1,2,3), (4,5,6)) as t(a,b,c);
open result_two for
from (values ('one'),...
The only way that I know this is possible is with a deferred constraint.
You will need to drop the primary key,
alter table x drop constraint x_pkey;
and add it again as deferrable:
alter table x add primary key (id) deferrable initially immediate;
Before performing the update you can defer the constraint:
set constraints x_pkey deferred;
and then ...
You could use a deferred constraint. For that you need to drop and re-create the primary key:
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX mytable_primkey ON mytable (id);
ALTER TABLE mytable DROP CONSTRAINT mytable_pkey;
ALTER TABLE mytable ADD PRIMARY KEY USING INDEX mytable_primkey
DEFERRABLE INITIALLY DEFERRED;
The update itself could then be done like that:
UPDATE mytable ...
I would simply separate the query logic and the insert logic:
with vals (a,b) as (
VALUES (1, null), (null, 2), (2, 3)
), new_rows as (
insert into all_sums (sum)
select a + b
where a + b is not null
select a + b
Note that in PostgreSQL a user and a role are the same thing. The difference is that a user can log in and a role cannot. So, to answer your question you need to decide if you want crm_usr to be able to login or not.
The approach that I try to take is to have two (or more) roles-- one for owning (i.e. xyz_owner) the objects and one or more (xyz_user) for ...
Your current idea of using a range query on the primary key is probably the best bet. I don't see how partial indexes could help with that. You would need a series of partial indexes which would in aggregate be a total index, and with BTREE indexes used for range queries that would be pointless. But, the success of this method is likely to depend on the ...
if you have permanent table TABLE_A
and you create a temporary table with the same name TABLE_A,
a permanent table will be not visible for your code.
But you could request data from the permanent table by add schema to name - schema_name.table_name.
Answering to your question - yes, it is safe.
I don't know of a better solution in general. A few minor things, though:
If you don't know the name of the parent's implicit sequence, use pg_get_serial_sequence().
SELECT pg_get_serial_sequence('data.log', 'id');
You might even use the expression in the CREATE TABLE script directly, but that would impose a very minor additional ...
The problem is with the parameter assignment in the call. To fix:
CALL config.sp_add_holiday(holiday_date => '2018-01-01', name => 'New Years Day');
Parameter notation is the same for functions and procedures (new in Postgres 11). The manual:
See Section 4.3 for the full details on function and procedure call syntax, ...
I expected the trigram index to figure out immediately there's no second 0 string anywhere
'second' and '0' are separate words, so it cannot detect their joint absence as such. It seems like it could detect the absence of ' 0', but this comment from "contrib/pg_trgm/trgm_regexp.c" seems pertinent:
* Note: Using again the example "foo bar", we will not ...
You need to use pg_index and limit to those that have indisunique. To get the actual index and table names, you need to join that table to pg_class and pg_namespace:
select idx.relname as index_name,
insp.nspname as index_schema,
tbl.relname as table_name,
tnsp.nspname as table_schema
from pg_index pgi
join pg_class idx on idx.oid = ...
This will be fixed in version 12, which will be released soon.
I think the summary here is that we are only willing to do so much work to try to prove a partial index can be used, because all queries have to go through that work even if they don't end up using the partial index. In this change, they just found a more efficient way to do that work in this ...
As Akina has pointed out in comments LAG() function requires an ORDER BY clause to show the properly values.
Given the next example:
CREATE TABLE t (id int, bar int);
INSERT INTO t VALUES
You can get the previous bar value ordering by id, (if you don't set an order, what is the ...
I have solved thanks to Jeff Janes on the pgsql-performance mailing list:
The GIN index was not used by PostgreSQL for the "NOT" operation. Creating a Btree index on the whole array solved the problem, allowing an index only scan. Now the query takes only a few milliseconds instead of minutes.
Index scans fetch from the heap for every single row. That is what makes it not be an index-only scan. It only makes sense to display the count for index-only scans, as that is the only case in which it is informative.
The line "Buffers:" line may be more informative in general (for a realistic case where you have more than one row at stake). But for ...
Handling of date and timestamp input has been made stricter in Postgres 10. Quoting the release notes:
Make to_timestamp() and to_date() reject out-of-range input
fields (Artur Zakirov)
For example, previously to_date('2009-06-40','YYYY-MM-DD') was
accepted and returned 2009-07-10. It will now generate an error.
Explains what you observed. You'...
The question is what is the reason the index is not used with the tstzrange containment operator and if there is a way to make it work.
The reason is quite trivial. B-tree indexes do no support the containment operator @>. Neither for range types like tstzrange nor for any other type (including array types).
... a btree operator class ...
As far as my research goes, postgresql is not able to rewrite containment check into an expression that could be matched using btree index, i.e.
esl1.created_at >= now() - interval '1 hour' AND
esl1.created_at < now() + interval '1 hour'
when written such way, the query is executed using indexes:
Index Scan using event_seating_lookup_created_at_idx ...
This is all around a horrible schema. You shouldn't be using json (as compared with jsonb) at all, ever (practically). If you're querying on the field, it should be jsonb. In your case, that's still a bad idea though, you likely want an sql array..
CREATE TABLE raw (
raw_id int PRIMARY KEY
GENERATED BY DEFAULT AS IDENTITY,
This 2019, not 2018. If you look in the server log file, you will probably find the recovery stopped as soon as it could (as soon as it reached a consistent state), because it could not stop as soon as you told it to, being a year late for that.
Try adding the partition key explicitly (redundantly!). Like:
WHERE identifier = 'some_identifier_from_subtable_s'
AND lower(left(identifier, 1)) = 's' -- 1st letter of above identifier
This should allow Postgres to understand it can prune all other partitions from the query.
Can be derived from $1 of course:
As far as I'm aware what you're trying to do, by issuing a commit inside a procedure, is use an autonomous transaction. Postgres does not support them inside stored procedures/functions, and the behaviour you are seeing is correct - the (implicit) transaction does not complete until the procedure completes.
This page discusses the issue in detail along with ...
WITH RECURSIVE cte AS (
SELECT id, domain_name, valid
WHERE parent_id IS NULL
SELECT domains.id, domains.domain_name, domains.valid
JOIN cte ON domains.parent_id = cte.id
WHERE NOT cte.valid -- stop recursion when valid node reached
SELECT id, domain_name