I merged some addition information from Hannah Vernons script with my own view, maybe it will help too:
CREATE OR ALTER VIEW dbo.v_currently_running_sql_agent_jobs
Lists all currently running jobs (similar to the Activity Monitor of the SQL Agent)
SELECT job.name AS job_name
I use the below script to show details about currently-running SQL Server Agent Jobs.
Shows the progress of running SQL Agent jobs
SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ UNCOMMITTED;
DECLARE @Actions TABLE
, [ActionText] varchar(50)
INSERT INTO @Actions ([ActionID], [ActionText])
As @Charlieface mentioned in the comments, a part of CHECKDB is creating a snapshot to provide a point in time picture of your database file while checking for consistency. This snapshot is always in the same directory where the database files are located, so this is why your job is getting the error; the account doesn't have permissions to create a new file ...
There is something fishy here. You say that that there's no Agent service. That shouldn't be possible. Agent is always installed (even on Express Edition, but disabled). So we have two options:
There really is no agent. If that is the case you have a botched installation. I would migrate off of this machine onto a healthy machine ASAP.
There is an agent. ...
Not seeing the SQL Server Agent icon in SSMS' Object Explorer tree on a non-express edition SQL server where you are not a member of sysadmin, but are a member of at least one of the SQL Server Agent Fixed Database Roles can also be because you login using a windows login that is allowed in through a windows group only: no entry exists in master.sys....