You have several SQL Server errors in the posted message:
String or binary data would be truncated.
The INSERT statement conflicted with the FOREIGN KEY constraint "FK_UPC_Item". The conflict occurred in database "PosBe", table "dbo.Item", column 'Item_ID'.
The INSERT statement conflicted with the FOREIGN KEY constraint "FK_VendorPartNo_Item". The ...
From your screenshot I judge that you are using the Express installer (It says: Select the express features to install), SSDT and Visual Studio 2010 have no influence on the options in this installer.
Make sure you install the Microsoft SQL Server2008 R2 RTM - Express with Advanced Services as that is the only one including BIDS.
Have a look at Features ...
Visual Studio Shell is just the plumbing required to run the shared components within SSMS. If you want to manage .aspx files etc., you'll need to install the free Visual Studio Express (or a higher edition if Express doesn't have all the functionality you need).
I have no idea why the columns changed appear twice and neither does google apparently.
With regards to the changes on the columns on the other hand your best option would be to compare the data types and table definitions on the .dsv.
Compare your new dsv to an old version of your dsv and have a look at all these datasource view properties
A low rent approach would be to open a command window (Start -> Run => cmd) and navigate to the folder with all the SSIS packages. cd \my\ssis\folder\
The find command looks for a specific string (case sensitive by default).
C:\my\ssis\folder > find "myCaseSensitiveTableName" *.dtsx
C:\my\ssis\folder > find /i "myCaseInsensitiveTableName" *....
You can find Adam Bartoszewicz's instructions here on Google Groups (also published on Pavel Stehule's blog):
Download and install PostgreSQL 9.3.4 for Win32 from http://www.enterprisedb.com
Download and install Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express
Lern tutorial http://blog.2ndquadrant.com/compiling-postgresql-extensions-visual-studio-windows