In MySQL, certain characters are considered the same when performing searches, e.g. 'n' and 'ñ'; unless you specify BINARY in the condition.

Is there a list somewhere of the characters that are considered the same?


Case or accent sensitivity behavior is defined by the collation you are using.

The full list of comparable characters in a given collation can be found in collationcharts where you find the MySQL list of collations

If you find your collation in that list you will see a chart of comparable characters.


Here is a summary of the utf8 collations: http://mysql.rjweb.org/utf8_collations.html

It shows that 'n' and 'ñ' are considered equal for all but utf8_bin, utf8_spanish2_ci, and utf8_spanish_ci In the Spanish cases, Ñ and ñ are treated like a separate letter and sort after nz and before o.

(Latvian and Polish have a couple of flavors of n that work like the Spanish ñ; but perhaps that is in of importance to you.)

  • Oh... I did not check to see whether "combining tilde" (hex CC83) plus "n" is equal. I'm pretty sure it is for utf8_unicode_ci but not utf8_general_ci; don't know about utf8_spanish*. – Rick James Dec 12 '15 at 22:30
  • I got frustrated trying to understand /mysql60/, so I wrote code to generate my page. – Rick James Dec 12 '15 at 22:40

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